Pain in your pelvic area may originate as a result of inflammation of the tissue that covers the membranes and organs in the pelvis.

What Causes It?

Some of the common causes of acute pelvic pain include:

  • Constipation
  • Appendicitis
  • Ovarian cysts
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
  • Peritonitis
  • UTI
  • Abscess in the pelvis
  • Endometriosis

The causes of chronic pelvic pain include:

  • Lower back pain
  • Chronic PID
  • Recurring ovarian cysts or UTI
  • IBS
  • Hernia
  • Fibroids

Risk Factors

Over 30% of women are expected to experience pelvic pain at some point in their life, due to painful periods or pain during sex. This means that women are more susceptible to pelvic pain as compared to men. In some cases, varicose veins may cause pain in the pelvic region, but the pain caused by these conditions cannot be specifically referred to as pelvic pain. That being said, the major risk factors for pelvic pain in women include:

  • Infertility
  • Extended menstruation
  • Sexual abuse
  • Physical abuse
  • Radiation or surgery around the pelvis
  • Miscarriages
  • Mental disorders

Your risk of pelvic pain is high if you have a family history of

  • Adenomyosis
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
  • Endometriosis
  • Fibroids

Symptoms

The most common symptoms of pelvic pain include:

  • Dyspareunia, i.e. pain during intercourse
  • Dysuria, i.e. pain during urination
  • Dysmenorrheal, i.e. painful periods
  • Dyschezia, i.e. painful bowel movements
  • Cramps in the pelvic area, particularly during menstruation
  • Bleeding from the vagina or rectum
  • Pain in the lower back
  • Infertility issues

Treatments

There are numerous non-surgical treatments that you can opt for to relieve pelvic pain. You may have to take medication for reducing inflammation or infection, in case that is the root cause of the pain. Treating the root cause can help reduce the intensity of the pain and treat the condition effectively. In addition to the drugs, you might have to perform some pelvic exercises to strengthen your pelvic region. These are known as Kegel exercises.

Other treatments include the following prescription drugs:

  • NSAIDs
  • Muscle Relaxers
  • Tricyclic Antidepressants
  • Neuroleptics
  • General Pain Medications
  • Opioids

When to Request an Evaluation?

If you experience pelvic pain accompanied by cramping, you should schedule an evaluation right away. In case you have experienced pelvic pain sporadically in the past, you can wait a couple of days before you see a doctor.

Preparing for Your Appointment

Your doctor will examine your medical history to diagnose the cause of your pelvic pain. You should take note of the intensity, duration, and probable cause of the pain. Your doctor might also have to examine your pelvis, particularly if the pain is caused due to injury. You will have to go through different tests before a full diagnosis can be made, including an ultrasound or MRI. Your doctor might also prescribe lab tests.